Aware About Miscarriage
Miscarriages can happen for a variety of medical reasons, many of which are not within a person’s control. The symptoms of a miscarriage vary, depending on stage of pregnancy…..
By Shalini Sahu
If you experience symptoms like heavy spotting, vaginal bleeding, discharge of tissue or fluid from your vagina, severe abdominal pain or cramping and mild to severe during pregnancy then you must aware about your pregnancy otherwise you might lose your pregnancy.
In some cases, it happens so quickly that one cannot even know whether she is pregnant before miscarry. In common parlance miscarriage also known as spontaneous abortion typically happens during the first trimester, or first three months, of the pregnancy. Miscarriage is a relatively common experience but it should not be treated as easier. We must take a step towards emotional healing the risk and what medical care might be needed. A miscarriage does not mean that you will not go on to have a baby. According to a report more than 80 percent of women who have had a miscarriage will go on to carry a baby to full term. Approximately only 1 percent of women have three or more miscarriages.
The length of a miscarriage differs for every woman, and it depends on different factors, including how far along you are in the pregnancy, whether you were carrying multiples and how long it takes your body to expel the fetal tissue and placenta
A woman early in her pregnancy may have a miscarriage and only experience bleeding and cramping for a few hours. But another woman may have miscarriage bleeding for up to a week. The bleeding can be heavy with clots, but it slowly tapers off over days before stopping, usually within two weeks.
According to World Health Organization, 2.6 million babies are stillborn and an estimated 85 percent of miscarriages happen before the 12th week of pregnancy every year. Data from Health Management Information System (HMIS) showed that rural areas, due to lack of specialized doctors and health care infrastructure, recorded a higher rate of miscarriages with 69.8 per cent of total miscarriages in state. Urban regions in Maharashtra recorded 18,920 miscarriages.
In women between the age of 20 to 25, around 15%-16% pregnancies end in miscarriage, and amongst the 30 to 35 age group, miscarriage rate increases by 18 to 22%. However, at the age of 40, approximately 38% incidences of miscarriages are reported annually, while at 45 plus the chances of miscarriage in pregnancy increases by 70 percent.
Most miscarriages occur because the fetus is not developing normally. About fifty percent of miscarriages are associated with extra or missing chromosomes. Most often, chromosome problems result from errors that occur by chance as the embryo divides. Various underlying health conditions and lifestyle habits may also interfere with the development of a fetus. Exercise and sexual intercourse do not cause miscarriages. Working will not affect the fetus either, unless you are exposed to harmful chemicals or radiation.
About 10 to 20 percent of known pregnancies end in miscarriage. But the actual number is likely higher because many miscarriages occur so early in pregnancy that a woman does not realize she is pregnant. Chromosomal abnormalities might lead to Blighted ovum which occurs when no embryo forms: Intrauterine fetal demise – in this situation, an embryo forms but stops developing and dies before any symptoms of hichpregnancy loss occur.
With a molar pregnancy, both sets of chromosomes come from the father. A molar pregnancy is associated with abnormal growth of the placenta; there is usually no fetal development. A partial molar pregnancy occurs when the mother’s chromosomes remain, but the father provides two sets of chromosomes. A partial molar pregnancy is usually associated with abnormalities of the placenta, and an abnormal fetus.
Molar and partial molar pregnancies are not viable pregnancies. Molar and partial molar pregnancies can sometimes be associated with cancerous changes of the placenta. In a few cases like uncontrolled diabetes, hormonal problems, infections, uterus or cervix problems and thyroid disease a mother’s health condition might lead to miscarriage. Examples include:
According to Dr. Sowjanya Aggarwal, Fellowshipin Reproductive Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Max Superspeciality Hospital,Vaishali (Ghaziabad), there are various factors increase the risk of miscarriage, including age, previous miscarriages, chronic conditions, uterine or cervical problems, smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs and weight. Women older than age 35 have a higher risk of miscarriage than do younger women. At age 35, you have about a 20 percent risk. At age 40, the risk is about 40 percent. And at age 45, it’s about 80 percent.
Dr. Sowjanya Aggarwal, said, “Women who have had two or more consecutive miscarriages are at higher risk of miscarriage. Women who have a chronic condition, such as uncontrolled diabetes, have a higher risk of miscarriage.Certain uterine abnormalities or weak cervical tissues (incompetent cervix) might increase the risk of miscarriage. Women who smoke during pregnancy have a greater risk of miscarriage than do nonsmokers. Heavy alcohol use and illicit drug use also increase the risk of miscarriage. Being underweight or being overweight has been linked with an increased risk of miscarriage.”
Some women who miscarry develop a uterine infection, also called a septic miscarriage. Signs and symptoms of this infection include fever, chills, lower abdominal tenderness and foul-smelling vaginal discharge.
A pregnancy loss can occur even if you do eliminate risk factors like smoking and drinking. Sometimes, there is nothing you can do to prevent a miscarriage. After a miscarriage, you can expect a menstrual cycle within about four to six weeks. After this point, you can conceive again. There is need of focus on taking good care of yourself and your baby by adopting regular prenatal care. You must avoid known miscarriage risk factors like smoking, drinking alcohol and illicit drug use. take a daily multivitamin. And lastly must limit your caffeine intake. A study reveals that drinking more than two caffeinated beverages a day appeared to be associated with a higher risk of miscarriage.
Dr Kiran Rama Goyal, Consultant, Obstetrician and Gyencology, Shri Balaji Action Medical Institute, New Delhi, Said “Miscarriage has since then replaced to signify the natural loss of pregnancy. The dawn of hope of a child which turns into darkness of despair on loss .The physical and emotional suffering on death of your unborn leads to great sufferings. As we focus on mental health of mother, this part is still less cared of .We need to be more empathetic towards such parents and families. This will build a much needed confidence in lady as the best therapy is tender loving care.”
Miscarriage with twins
Twins typically happen when two eggs are fertilized instead of one. They can also happen when one fertilized egg splits into two separate embryos.
Naturally, there are additional considerations when a woman is pregnant with twins. Having multiple babies in the womb can affect growth and development. Women who are pregnant with twins or other multiples may be more likely to have complications such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, or miscarriage.
Additionally, a type of miscarriage called vanishing twin syndrome can affect some who are pregnant with twins. Vanishing twin syndrome occurs when only one fetus can be detected in a woman who was previously determined to be pregnant with twins. In many cases, the vanished twin is reabsorbed into the placenta. Sometimes this happens so early in the pregnancy that you didn’t even know you were pregnant with twins.
Getting pregnant again
Following a miscarriage, it is a good idea to wait until you are both physically and emotionally ready before trying to conceive again. A miscarriage is typically only a one-time occurrence. However, if you have had two or more consecutive miscarriages, your doctor will recommend testing to detect what may have caused your previous miscarriages. These may include blood tests to detect hormone imbalances, chromosome tests, using blood or tissue samples, pelvic and uterine exams and ultrasounds.